Monday, October 23, 2017

October is Healthy Lung Month

October is Healthy Lung Month

For many, October is a time for fall activities, football, and Halloween decorations. For some, it is a chance to shed light on the pain and suffering endured by varying diseases susceptible to the lungs. October happens to be healthy lung month. Most often when considering lung diseases people think of lung cancer. While that particular type of cancer is the second most common cancer for both men and women, according to, there are many other lung diseases that are still very relevant.


Asthma causes wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing at night or early in the morning. The asthma symptoms present themselves as asthma attacks, although if you have the disease you have asthma all the time.  Attacks only occur when something bothers your lungs. The most common asthma triggers are tobacco, smoke, dust mites, outdoor air pollution, cockroaches, pets, and mold. Asthma is one of the most common lung diseases that impacts children though it can persist into adulthood. Asthma medications come in two forms - quick relief and long term. The quick relief medicine is taken when an asthma attack occurs; while the long term control medicine ensures that there are fewer and milder attacks. There is no cure for asthma and it is unknown what causes the illness.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD, includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The disease is an umbrella term for progressive lung diseases. In 80 to 90 percent of cases the cause of the disease is smoking though it can be genetic. Second hand smoke, wood smoke and occupational dusts chemicals can also cause the disease. COPD develops slowly over time - most cases are not diagnosed until the patient is over 40 years old. The disease is commonly characterized by increasing breathlessness. COPD affects around 30 million individuals in the United States - half of those have symptoms of COPD and are unaware that they have the disease. Symptoms of the disease include frequent coughing, wheezing, and tightness in the chest. Those that feel they may have symptoms of COPD should seek a medical professional and ask for a spirometry test. The test is used to determine lung capacity by measuring how much air is inhaled, exhaled, and at what speed.


Mesothelioma, or Meso, is a rare form of cancer that develops in the lining of the organs. The cancer can develop in the lungs, heart, abdominal cavity and testicles. The most common form is pleural mesothelioma - which occurs in the lining of the lungs. The only known cause of the cancer is asbestos. When asbestos dust is inhaled it embeds in the lining of the organs where the mesothelioma cancer develops. Pleural mesothelioma accounts for 80 to 90 percent of all diagnosed cases. The symptoms of the disease are specific to where the cancer develops, further complicating the diagnosis process. Most often the disease is misdiagnosed as pneumonia or the flu - an accurate diagnosis is often not reached until the cancer has progressed to the third or fourth stage. At this stage of the illness prognosis is poor - most patients live for 12 to 21 months following diagnosis. Though treatments are advancing, there is currently no cure for mesothelioma.


Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, more commonly known as PCD is a rare genetic condition. The disease impacts 1 of every 15,000 to 20,000 individuals worldwide. PCD is a genetic mutation that impacts the structure and function of cilia - hairlike structures that line the respiratory system dislodging mucus. PCD inhibits the cilia of accurately cleaning out inhaled particles from the lungs.Those with PCD can also develop chronic ear, sinus, pulmonary disease, reversed or flipped organs and fertility issues. PCD is passed from healthy parents to their children through DNA. Symptoms of PCD progress over time and are worsened by environmental factors - such as smoke.

Air Quality Can help to Improve Lung Function

While these illnesses may not be eradicated by clean air environmental factors - such as the air quality - can impact the severity of symptoms and ease pain. A speck air monitoring system can empower you to take charge of your lung health.

Many thanks to Rachel Lynch from the Mesothelioma Foundation for writing this post!

Monday, July 10, 2017

Particulate Matter Metrics, Adverse Health Outcomes and Ultrafine Particles

Particulate Matter Metrics, Adverse Health Outcomes and Ultrafine Particles

Historically, mass concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been the most widely used metric for assessing exposure levels.  Part of the reason for this grew out of studies in the mid 1900’s that showed correlations between mass concentrations of coal dust and the debilitating lung disease of pneumoconiosis (“black lung”) in underground coal miners. Because mass was one of the easiest properties to measure scientists initially used this metric to study and quantify the levels of dusts and aerosols that are present in the air we breathe and it is still used today. But particulate matter poses a particularly complex hazard where dose and toxicity are not always correlated well with mass concentrations but are associated with other physical parameters such as number, surface area and shape, as well as composition. Particulate matter exposure assessment therefore needs to reflect the roles of these parameters, as well as chemistry and particle size and shape, relative to the broad range of adverse health problems that particulate matter creates.
Mass concentrations may have correlated well with the incidence rates of pulmonary pneumoconiosis and there may be other respiratory illnesses that show similar correlations today, but mass concentrations alone do not appear to explain many additional adverse health problems.  While respiratory disease and cancer have been shown to be related to particulates for decades, additional diseases of the circulatory system and neurological disorders are now also being correlated with exposures to particulates.  In some of these studies negative health outcomes still persist at very low mass concentrations that are generally deemed safe and there is little, if any, evidence of correlations with these low mass concentrations.  For both respiratory and circulatory illnesses, the most convincing correlations appear to be with particulate matter surface areas, and, in many instances, a parameter called lung deposited surface area, or LDSA.
In addition, other recent studies that link particulate matter exposure to neurological disorders, such as dementia, show that number concentrations of nanometer size particles provide the best correlation.  It is also worth noting that LDSA is also dominated by the presence of particles typically in the 20 nm to 400 nm particle size range and that high number and surface concentrations can occur at quite low mass concentrations.  It is not unreasonable to expect such correlations since it is these very small particles that penetrate most deeply into the lung where they are retained with high efficiency. As more studies and more data accumulate that address the relationships between particulate matter exposure and adverse health outcomes, the scientific community needs to remain vigilant and cognizant of the importance of metrics other than mass that may be necessary to unravel these complex dependencies and interactions.
Measurement of ultrafine particulate matter, either as a component of PM2.5 or as particulate matter that exists as the only component of PM2.5, is more difficult because of the small size of the particles.  Techniques that have been shown to work the best for measurement of these particles usually involve some sort of particle charging scheme where the particles flow through a region of molecular ions or where particles are charged directly, such as via irradiation by ultraviolet light or some combination of the different charging schemes.  But these techniques are generally more expensive or involve radionuclides that render the technique difficult to implement.
Recently, Airviz Inc. has embarked upon a pioneering research effort to use simple and well-known optical techniques to measure ultrafine particle surface and mass concentrations that can result in small and inexpensive devices that will usher in a new era of particulate measurement capability currently unavailable to the general populace.  In the envisaged end-unit device, which is expected to be smaller and more compact than the current Speck sensor, monitoring of mass and surface concentrations of ultrafine particles that exist by themselves or as a major/minor component of PM2.5 will become routine.  This capability will allow us to expand our knowledge of the role(s) that ultrafine particles play in producing negative health consequences and premature morbidity.  Just recently, for instance, a new study (see Ref. 5 below) indicated that for every increment in PM2.5 of 10 µg/m3 life expectancies can be reduced by as much as ten years.  This is a remarkable number but questions still remain as to how much of this increase could be ultrafine particles and/or do ultrafine particles dominate these statistics.  With improved measurement capabilities available to a wider spectrum of the population and a potentially much finer mesh for correlation of exposures, these questions may be finally answered. Stay tuned……

Article by Dave Litton, Senior Scientist at Airviz Inc.

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Improve Indoor Air Quality by Avoiding Asbestos, Particulate Matter & Dust


Basic needs -- food, water, shelter, family, and good health are common essentials for survival and well-being. While expanding those necessities a bit this Clean Air and Breathe Easy month, we’re raising asbestos, particulate matter, dust and other air pollutant awareness to detail how and why air quality matters. Affecting billions of people globally every single day, air quality can often be the key to living your highest quality of life for the most number of years possible.

On average, people living in developed countries spend roughly 90% of their time indoors, either at home or in the workplace. Being aware and able to improve the quality of the air you breathe from the comfort of your own home or workplace can significantly benefit your health and quality of life. 

Asbestos Awareness

Have you ever even heard of asbestos? Very resistant to chemicals, electricity and water, asbestos is a naturally occurring fibrous silicate mineral. Due to its malleability and other desirable physical properties, it has been used in building materials including roofs, tiles, wall boards, cables, even paints and much more, for many years. It was not until the 1960s that researchers identified asbestos-related illnesses and cancer such as mesothelioma - affecting the lungs, abdomen, heart or testes. In fact, exposure to asbestos is the only scientifically proven cause of mesothelioma, taking the lives of 3,000 people each year in the United States alone.

But what does a mineral have to do with air quality and my health? Because asbestos is fibrous in nature and used in products likely to crumble or flake such as insulation, roofing and more, there are a number of ways to become exposed to asbestos. Generally speaking if asbestos is undisturbed, it is not harmful. However, when asbestos fibers are disturbed, they can become airborne and when inhaled or ingested, the fibers can lodge in the lining of the heart, abdomen, lungs and other areas of the body, causing health effects up to 10-50 years later.

Although asbestos is not used in new construction, it has yet to be banned in the United States today and if your home was built prior to 1980, it is possible that some building materials used to construct your home may contain asbestos. If you suspect asbestos in your home, do not sweep, use a fan or disturb the asbestos or the area you suspect that may contain asbestos. Have your home tested for asbestos and consider a Speck air quality sensor to stay informed of the changes and trends in your home’s air concentration.

Dust & Particulate Matter Awareness

When it comes to the day to day, is particulate matter harmful? Yes. Mixtures of microscopic solids and liquid droplets suspended in the air make up harmful fine particle pollution. Those with heart or lung disease, especially older adults and children are considered at greater risk. Particulate matter can specifically aggravate diseases including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Any particles of matter, suspended in the are that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter, or smaller, (thirty times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair) are classified as fine particles, which can cause or worsen heart and lung diseases. Due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, blocking air sacs where oxygen enters the bloodstream or attaching to lung tissue where their reactive surfaces can adversely affect lung tissue. Airborne chemicals that are toxic and reactive can attach to PM2.5 and enter your bloodstream.

Where does particulate matter come from and how can I stay safe at home? Fine particles and particulate matter are produced by many sources including household activities such as cooking and cleaning. For example, gas and oil heating can release particulates. Pay attention to where furnace vents are or if you have an oil heater. Forced-air heating and air conditioning systems can be major sources of air pollution if the ductwork is dirty or if there are no filters in the system to filter out particles as they move throughout the house. Use HEPA filters with forced-air systems to improve indoor air quality.

If you’ve caged up, cleaned or thrown away your dust bunnies this Spring, give yourself a pat on the back, but don’t stop there. Learn more about air quality monitoring and fine particulate matter in indoor environments, to truly breathe easy this Clean Air month and stay up to date on the latest news and air quality announcements, year-round by following our Speck Sensor Facebook page.

Written by MAA Center

Questions on how to dispose of asbestos? can help!

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Focus on COPD

Focus on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a debilitating and potentially fatal condition affecting over 15 million Americans.  In 2008, chronic lower respiratory disease, of which COPD is the largest primary condition, became the third leading cause of death. This condition is found to be increasing globally with increased numbers of emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to exacerbations of the condition brought on by exposures to irritating gases and particulate matter.  In France alone, the national medical costs in 2012 attributable to COPD amounted to over 670 million euros, an increase of almost 11% since 2007.  In the U.S., the medical costs for COPD in 2010 were over $36 billion dollars.  And these numbers, as well as the number of persons afflicted with this condition, continue to rise.  Eighty percent of the deaths from COPD are attributable to smoking and approximately 60% of persons with COPD are former smokers or live in homes where someone is a smoker.  Clearly, smoking is a major factor in acquiring this disease but for almost 40% of sufferers, smoking was not the primary cause.  Persons living in areas highly polluted by industry or near major traffic areas experience higher than average affliction rates.
There is no cure for COPD and once the condition is diagnosed, the best that can be hoped for is that it can be managed in a manner that minimally affects everyday lives.  But knowing what might be the triggers for episodes, i.e., exacerbations, has been difficult to quantify.  Data that is available is very general.  For instance, persons living in areas that have higher than average pollution levels tend to be affected more readily than persons living in lower pollution areas. But these are very general observations.  What pollutant is responsible? Or is one pollutant more responsible than another and why?  Ozone is known to have an effect and there is a growing body of evidence indicating that fine particles, PM2.5, or their even smaller constituent, ultrafine particles with diameters less than 300 nm, may also play a major role.  Studies in the UK, as well as some studies being proposed for the U.S., hope to shed more light on this problem by tracking individual exposure levels on a daily basis in order to correlate exacerbations with pollutant exposures.
Knowing this type of information can have significant impact not only on reducing the number of emergency room visits and hospitalizations but also on improving the quality of life of persons that are affected.  Using inexpensive pollutant monitors in homes can alert persons to perform simple actions, like closing windows, increasing ventilation, turning on air cleaners, or even replacing furnace and AC filters that can reduce pollutant level and decrease exposures that could have led to exacerbations and the subsequent consequences.  Even though there is still much work to be done to pinpoint and quantify those factors that produce adverse COPD reactions, the outlook is hopeful that these studies can have a major impact on reducing the devastating consequences associated with this condition.

A wealth of additional information can be found on the COPD Foundation website,  One of the more comprehensive COPD health care systems is operated by National Jewish Health located in Denver, CO,, and locally in the Pittsburgh, PA area UPMC maintains a Center for COPD and Emphysema,, and Allegheny Health Network (AHN) has recently established a Breathing Disorders Center,   
Additionally, links to some current and relevant research on this problem can be found below, as well as a link to a peer review journal dedicated to COPD….


Tuesday, January 3, 2017

Particulate Matter and Susceptible Populations:

We often hear warnings about ozone action days or warnings for susceptible segments of the population to stay indoors if the air quality exceeds certain levels.  So, what does it mean to be “susceptible”, or “at-risk population” or “sensitive population?  Who belongs to these groups and why?  In a review article entitled “Particulate Matter – Induced Health Effects: Who is susceptible?” researchers at the National Center for Environmental Assessment at the EPA located in the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina examined the epidemiological data acquired over the past two decades in an effort to explain and quantify susceptible populations.

In their review paper, they divided these populations into several distinct categories:

1.     Life Stage – where, in very general terms persons at the extremes (children and adults over 75 years of age) are found to be more susceptible to PM exposures than the rest of the population;
2.     Sex – And although there have been limited studies addressing this category and no relevant correlations found, it is generally recognized that female respiratory systems are generally smaller and more reactive, factors that could place them at increased risk;
3.     Race and Ethnicity – Some recent studies indicate that there may be some differences but those differences appear to also vary by location and the findings in one geographical region may not be the same as in another geographical region;
4.     Genetic Factors – This category is in its infancy in our understanding of the impact of genetic factors but some genes have already been identified that can significantly affect antioxidant functions in the lung;
5.     Obesity – While studies have shown that exposure to PM increases heart rate variability and higher levels of inflammatory markers in obese persons, some of these results may also be masked by other co-existing and pre-existing conditions;
6.     Preexisting Diseases – By far, those persons with preexisting cardiovascular or respiratory disease form the largest segment of at-risk, susceptible populations. Persons with asthma or COPD exhibit increased adverse reactions to PM exposures as well as those with congestive heart failure or coronary artery disease or other cardiovascular diseases.

The full report can be found at: and is well worth reading. It is also important to understand that our definition of susceptible populations is dynamic and evolving. And, more importantly, as the authors also stress, adverse reactions to PM exposure is not relegated to these susceptible groups.  Given certain circumstances and conditions, even the healthiest of those among us can be affected with the real message being to minimize PM exposures for a longer, healthier life.

Dave Litton
Senior Scientist

Airviz, Inc.